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Local Anesthetics Exam II

This is a self-grading exam. Answers are entered by clicking the button corresponding to your selection. The examination is scored by clicking 'Grade Test' at the bottom of the form. Correct answers are found through hyperlinks at the bottom of the page.



Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Advantage(s) of 5% lidocaine (Xylocaine)-prilocaine (Citanest) cream (eutectic mixture)

    A) no local irritation
    B) even absorption
    C) no systemic toxicity
    D) higher melting point of combined drug than either lidocaine (Xylocaine) or prilocaine (Citanest) alone

Question # 2 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic used in greater than 50% of rhinolaryngologic cases:

    A) prilocaine (Citanest)
    B) cocaine
    C) mepivacaine (Carbocaine)
    D) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    E) tetracaine (pontocaine)

Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism(s) of local anesthetic action in epidural anesthesia:

    A) direct local anesthetic action on nerve roots and spinal cord following local anesthetic diffusion across the dura
    B) diffusion of local anesthetic into paravertebral regions through the intervertebral foramina
    C) both
    D) neither

Question # 4 (Multiple Answer) Rationale for adding epinephrine to a local anesthetic solution:

    A) reduced local anesthetic systemic absorption
    B) increased anesthetic concentration near nerve fibers
    C) reduced duration of conduction blockade
    D) all of the above

Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Zone of differential motor blockade may average up to four segments below the sensory level

    A) epidural
    B) spinal

Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Duration of sensory anesthesia is likely to be extended for abdominal regional anesthesia

    A) true
    B) false

Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Primary side effect/toxicities associated with local anesthetic use:

    A) allergic reactions
    B) systemic toxicity
    C) both
    D) neither

Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Factors enhancing bupivacaine (Marcaine) toxicity

    A) pregnancy
    B) presence of calcium channel blockers
    C) arterial hypoxemia
    D) acidosis
    E) hypercarbia

Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Agents added to local anesthetics that prolonged local anesthetic duration of action

    A) epinephrine
    B) phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
    C) dextran

Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) typically a zone of differential sympathetic nervous system blockade

    A) epidural
    B) spinal

Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Preferred local anesthetics for local infiltration:

    A) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    B) ropivacaine (Naropin)
    C) bupivacaine (Marcaine)

Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity associate with local anesthesia: sensory anesthesia, bowell & bladder sphincter dysfunction, paraplegia -- may because by nonhomogeneous local anesthetic distribution

    A) anterior spinal artery syndrome
    B) cauda equina syndrome
    C) transient radicular irritation

Question # 13 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity -- moderate/severe lower back, buttocks, posterior side pain

    A) cauda equina syndrome
    B) transient radicular irritation
    C) anterior spinal artery syndrome

Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Factors that influence lidocaine (Xylocaine) metabolism:

    A) pregnancy-induced hypertension
    B) hepatic disease
    C) reduced liver blood flow
    D) volatile anesthetics

Question # 15 (Multiple Choice) Most common cause of toxic plasma local anesthetic concentrations

    A) incorrect dosage
    B) accidental direct intravascular injection during peripheral or block or epidural anesthesia

Question # 16 (Multiple Choice) Common eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA)

    A) tetracaine (pontocaine) and epinephrine
    B) lidocaine (Xylocaine) and tetracaine (pontocaine)
    C) prilocaine (Citanest) and bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    D) tetracaine (pontocaine) and bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    E) lidocaine (Xylocaine) and prilocaine (Citanest)

Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Most frequent local anesthetic clinical use:

    A) treatment of grand mal seizure
    B) analgesia
    C) management of cardiac arrhythmias
    D) regional anesthetia
    E) management of increased intracranial pressure

Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) effect on ventilation response to hypoxia

    A) enhanced response
    B) depressed response
    C) no effect

Question # 19 (Multiple Answer) Clinical use(s) of EMLA applications:

    A) arterial cannulation
    B) venipuncture
    C) myringotomy
    D) lumbar puncture

Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Allergic reactions to local anesthetics:

    A) common > 10% of adverse reactions due to allergic mechanisms
    B) high-risk with ester-type agents which are metabolized to p-aminobenzoic acid-related compounds
    C) cross-sensitivity between esters and amide-type local anesthetics are common
    D) intradermal testing for possible allergy to local anesthetics should use preservative-free drug

Question # 21 (Multiple Answer) Factors which increase local anesthetic CNS toxicities:

    A) hypokalemia
    B) rate of injection
    C) patient receiving mexiletine (Mexitil) when lidocaine (Xylocaine) is used
    D) high PaCO2 (reduced local anesthetic seizure threshold)

Question # 22 (Multiple Choice) Least likely to exhibit cross-sensitivity with amide or ester local anesthetics.

    A) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    B) tetracaine (pontocaine)
    C) mepivacaine (Carbocaine)
    D) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    E) dyclonine (Dyclone)

Question # 23 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) that reduce lidocaine (Xylocaine) seizure threshold.

    A) hypoxemia
    B) hyperkalemia
    C) acidosis

Question # 24 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic which produces localized vasoconstriction and anesthesia

    A) tetracaine (pontocaine)
    B) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    C) cocaine
    D) prilocaine (Citanest)
    E) chloroprocaine (Nesacaine)

Question # 25 (Multiple Choice) Agents not recommended for Bier block:

    A) chloroprocaine (Nesacaine)
    B) mepivacaine (Carbocaine)
    C) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    D) all the above

Question # 26 (Multiple Answer) Manifestation of systemic toxicity

    A) CNS toxicity
    B) cardiovascular toxicity
    C) neurological symptoms

Question # 27 (Multiple Choice) Most commonly used local anesthetic for rhinolaryngologic cases

    A) ropivacaine (Naropin)
    B) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    C) mepivacaine (Carbocaine)
    D) cocaine
    E) tetracaine (pontocaine)

Question # 28 (Multiple Answer) Commonly use local anesthetics for topical/surface application:

    A) chloroprocaine (Nesacaine)
    B) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    C) tetracaine (pontocaine)
    D) cocaine
    E) procaine (Novocain)

Question # 29 (Multiple Answer) Clinical presentations suggestive of local anesthetic allergies:

    A) rash
    B) laryngeal edema
    C) bronchospasm
    D) urticaria
    E) possibly hypotension

Question # 30 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic most likely to cause cyanosis secondary to reduced oxygen transport:

    A) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    B) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    C) dibucaine (Nupercainal, generic)
    D) prilocaine (Citanest)
    E) procaine (Novocain)

Question # 31 (Multiple Choice) This amide-type local anesthetic is used to assess the possible presence of atypical cholinesterase

    A) ropivacaine (Naropin)
    B) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    C) dibucaine (Nupercainal, generic)
    D) procaine (Novocain)
    E) chloroprocaine (Nesacaine)

Question # 32 (Multiple Choice) Toxicities associated with systemic epinephrine absorption following local anesthetic use with epinephrine included in the local anesthetic solution

    A) hypertension
    B) arrhythmias
    C) both
    D) neither

Question # 33 (Multiple Choice) ropivacaine (Naropin):less cardiotoxic then bupivacaine (Marcaine)

    A) true
    B) false

Question # 34 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) which determine extent of systemic local anesthetic absorption:

    A) initial dose
    B) injection site vascularity
    C) intrinsic drug properties
    D) whether or not epinephrine was used to provide local vasoconstriction

Question # 35 (Multiple Answer) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) cardiotoxicity -- electrophysiological characteristics

    A) ECG -PR interval prolongation
    B) increased conduction velocity
    C) reduced phase 4 depolarization
    D) reduced automaticity

Question # 36 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic lipophilicity and effectiveness of epinephrine on local anesthesia:

    A) more lipophilic anesthetics benefit most by epinephrine in addition to local anesthetic solutions
    B) more lipophilic anesthetics benef ileast by epinephrine in addition to local anesthetic solutions

Question # 37 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity following local anesthesia: lower extremity paresis-- predisposing conditions may include advanced age and peripheral vascular disease

    A) transient radicular irritation
    B) cauda equina syndrome
    C) anterior spinal artery syndrome

Question # 38 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic not recommended for peripheral nerve blockade:

    A) lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    B) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    C) ropivacaine (Naropin)
    D) tetracaine (pontocaine)

Question # 39 (Multiple Answer) Frequently used amide-type local anesthetic for Bier block

    A) chloroprocaine (Nesacaine)
    B) prilocaine (Citanest)
    C) bupivacaine (Marcaine)
    D) ropivacaine (Naropin)

Correct Answers

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39






































Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Advantage(s) of 5% lidocaine (Xylocaine)-prilocaine (Citanest) cream (eutectic mixture)

(A) no local irritation

(B) even absorption

(C) no systemic toxicity

BACK







































Question # 2 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic used in greater than 50% of rhinolaryngologic cases:

Answer: (B) cocaine

BACK







































Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism(s) of local anesthetic action in epidural anesthesia:

Answer: (C) both

BACK







































Question # 4 (Multiple Answer) Rationale for adding epinephrine to a local anesthetic solution:

(A) reduced local anesthetic systemic absorption

(B) increased anesthetic concentration near nerve fibers

BACK







































Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Zone of differential motor blockade may average up to four segments below the sensory level

Answer: (A) epidural

BACK







































Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Duration of sensory anesthesia is likely to be extended for abdominal regional anesthesia

Answer: (B) false

BACK







































Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Primary side effect/toxicities associated with local anesthetic use:

Answer: (C) both

BACK







































Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Factors enhancing bupivacaine (Marcaine) toxicity

(A) pregnancy

(B) presence of calcium channel blockers

(C) arterial hypoxemia

(D) acidosis

(E) hypercarbia

BACK







































Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Agents added to local anesthetics that prolonged local anesthetic duration of action

(A) epinephrine

(B) phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)

(C) dextran

BACK







































Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) typically a zone of differential sympathetic nervous system blockade

Answer: (B) spinal

BACK







































Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Preferred local anesthetics for local infiltration:

(A) lidocaine (Xylocaine)

(B) ropivacaine (Naropin)

(C) bupivacaine (Marcaine)

BACK







































Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity associate with local anesthesia: sensory anesthesia, bowell & bladder sphincter dysfunction, paraplegia -- may because by nonhomogeneous local anesthetic distribution

Answer: (B) cauda equina syndrome

BACK







































Question # 13 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity -- moderate/severe lower back, buttocks, posterior side pain

Answer: (B) transient radicular irritation

BACK







































Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Factors that influence lidocaine (Xylocaine) metabolism:

(A) pregnancy-induced hypertension

(B) hepatic disease

(C) reduced liver blood flow

(D) volatile anesthetics

BACK







































Question # 15 (Multiple Choice) Most common cause of toxic plasma local anesthetic concentrations

Answer: (B) accidental direct intravascular injection during peripheral or block or epidural anesthesia

BACK







































Question # 16 (Multiple Choice) Common eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA)

Answer: (E) lidocaine (Xylocaine) and prilocaine (Citanest)

BACK







































Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Most frequent local anesthetic clinical use:

Answer: (D) regional anesthetia

BACK







































Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) effect on ventilation response to hypoxia

Answer: (B) depressed response

BACK







































Question # 19 (Multiple Answer) Clinical use(s) of EMLA applications:

(A) arterial cannulation

(B) venipuncture

(C) myringotomy

(D) lumbar puncture

BACK







































Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Allergic reactions to local anesthetics:

(B) high-risk with ester-type agents which are metabolized to p-aminobenzoic acid-related compounds

(D) intradermal testing for possible allergy to local anesthetics should use preservative-free drug

BACK







































Question # 21 (Multiple Answer) Factors which increase local anesthetic CNS toxicities:

(B) rate of injection

(C) patient receiving mexiletine (Mexitil) when lidocaine (Xylocaine) is used

(D) high PaCO2 (reduced local anesthetic seizure threshold)

BACK







































Question # 22 (Multiple Choice) Least likely to exhibit cross-sensitivity with amide or ester local anesthetics.

Answer: (E) dyclonine (Dyclone)

dyclonine (Dyclone) -- ketone structure BACK







































Question # 23 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) that reduce lidocaine (Xylocaine) seizure threshold.

(A) hypoxemia

(B) hyperkalemia

(C) acidosis

BACK







































Question # 24 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic which produces localized vasoconstriction and anesthesia

Answer: (C) cocaine

BACK







































Question # 25 (Multiple Choice) Agents not recommended for Bier block:

Answer: (D) all the above

BACK







































Question # 26 (Multiple Answer) Manifestation of systemic toxicity

(A) CNS toxicity

(B) cardiovascular toxicity

(C) neurological symptoms

BACK







































Question # 27 (Multiple Choice) Most commonly used local anesthetic for rhinolaryngologic cases

Answer: (D) cocaine

BACK







































Question # 28 (Multiple Answer) Commonly use local anesthetics for topical/surface application:

(B) lidocaine (Xylocaine)

(C) tetracaine (pontocaine)

(D) cocaine

BACK







































Question # 29 (Multiple Answer) Clinical presentations suggestive of local anesthetic allergies:

(A) rash

(B) laryngeal edema

(C) bronchospasm

(D) urticaria

(E) possibly hypotension

BACK







































Question # 30 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic most likely to cause cyanosis secondary to reduced oxygen transport:

Answer: (D) prilocaine (Citanest)

BACK







































Question # 31 (Multiple Choice) This amide-type local anesthetic is used to assess the possible presence of atypical cholinesterase

Answer: (C) dibucaine (Nupercainal, generic)

BACK







































Question # 32 (Multiple Choice) Toxicities associated with systemic epinephrine absorption following local anesthetic use with epinephrine included in the local anesthetic solution

Answer: (C) both

BACK







































Question # 33 (Multiple Choice) ropivacaine (Naropin):less cardiotoxic then bupivacaine (Marcaine)

Answer: (A) true

pure S-enantiomer BACK







































Question # 34 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) which determine extent of systemic local anesthetic absorption:

(A) initial dose

(B) injection site vascularity

(C) intrinsic drug properties

(D) whether or not epinephrine was used to provide local vasoconstriction

BACK







































Question # 35 (Multiple Answer) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) cardiotoxicity -- electrophysiological characteristics

(A) ECG -PR interval prolongation

(C) reduced phase 4 depolarization

(D) reduced automaticity

BACK







































Question # 36 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic lipophilicity and effectiveness of epinephrine on local anesthesia:

Answer: (B) more lipophilic anesthetics benef ileast by epinephrine in addition to local anesthetic solutions

BACK







































Question # 37 (Multiple Choice) Neurotoxicity following local anesthesia: lower extremity paresis-- predisposing conditions may include advanced age and peripheral vascular disease

Answer: (C) anterior spinal artery syndrome

BACK







































Question # 38 (Multiple Choice) Local anesthetic not recommended for peripheral nerve blockade:

Answer: (D) tetracaine (pontocaine)

slow onset/systemic toxicity BACK







































Question # 39 (Multiple Answer) Frequently used amide-type local anesthetic for Bier block

(B) prilocaine (Citanest)

BACK